Thyroid Diseases & Arising Risk Factors

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Thyroid Diseases & Arising Risk Factors
The thyroid gland is a secretory gland in the fore part of a neck. It regularly secretes two hormones called T4 (thyroxin) and calcitonin to blood. The secreted T4 hormone then transfers into T3 (triiodothyronine) by non-thyroid tissues. The T4 and T3 hormones regulate many of our biological functions. Secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland is regulated by TSH (thyroid stimulant hormone), secreted by hypophysis in brain.

What is Goiter?
In the general sense, goiter is extension of the thyroid gland. The reason for goiter is more than one disease. The thyroid disease where the thyroid gland secretes more than adequate hormones is called Hyperthyroid, while its secretion of thyroid gland less than adequate is called Hypothyroid; and the normal condition of he hormone levels is called euthyroid. Nodule is mass that needs to exist in the thyroid gland. In all three situations, nodule is seen, and according to functionality or non-functionality of the nodule tissue, it is called cold or hot nodule. As the thyroid hormones regulate all body cells and organs, diagnosis of abnormality in the thyroid gland is vital. The diagnosis is conducted through medical examinations, laboratory surveys and radiological screening.      
Thyroid and Hear Diseases
The thyroxin secreted from the thyroid gland regulates the number of heartbeats (pulsation) per minute and the amount (flow) of the blood the heart pumps per heartbeat.

Hyperthyroidism causes speeding of the heartbeats (tachycardia) and breakage of the heart’s rhythm (arrhythmia). As a result, the patient feels ‘throb’.  Moreover, when the thyroid hormone applied in treatment of goiter is overconsumed, the same heart arrhythmia is seen. The first thing the patient realizes after the treatment of Hyperthyroid is a speedy turning of the heartbeats to normal. Not being aware that the reason is Thyroid disease, rhythm correcting treatments are applied to such patients for a long time, but no result is likely achieved, as not treating the thyroid disease, which is the underlying reason, these symptoms do not return to normal.

When deficiency of thyroid hormone, which is called Hypothyroidism, is experienced, the heart gets weaker and decreases fewer than 70 pulses per minute. Also, the cholesterol of the patient increases. The high cholesterol does not decrease even through diet and drugs. If the thyroid deficiency of the patient is not treated in a short period, the increased cholesterol may block the heart and brain veins, and myocardial infarction and paralysis may probably increase. In both the pre-treatment examination of the patients whose heartbeats are slow and stage of diagnosis of cholesterol, an examination should be made in terms of the thyroid disease and these patients should be give an adequate dose of the thyroid hormone at the treatment stage. This treatment should last life long under close follow-up.   
           
For diagnosis of the functional disorder of the thyroid gland, the level of the tests of the thyroid function in blood should be measured. The most valuable among these measurements is measurement of the TSH level in blood. And other tests are measurements of T4 and T3 levels. If the thyroid hormone is lesser or more than adequate, firstly the reason for and type of this should be determined through modern techniques and then, a treatment applicable to the type of the goiter should be made. 
Thyroid Diseases & Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis may arise from the thyroid disease itself and taken thyroid drugs. The patients who are under the risk of osteoporosis should be under doctor control in this regard.
Thyroid Diseases & Menstrual Irregularity
In order to have regular menstruations, many hormones in our body should be in a healthy balance. However, when it is said menstrual irregularity, firstly sexual hormone disorders, that is, the levels of estrogen and progesterone in blood in women come to mind. But menstrual irregularity may also be experienced due to unsatisfactory (hypothyroidism) or excessive (hyperthyroidism) secretion of the thyroid hormones even when the sexual hormones are normal in many patients.
   
In menstrual irregularities due to the thyroid hormone disorders, the classical estrogen-progesterone treatment is not successful in most cases. In such patients, firstly, the thyroid hormone disorder is treated and is waited for treatment of the menstrual disorder after a 3-6 month period.
Thyroid Diseases & Infertility
Thyroidal hormone disorders in women may cause disorder of ovulation function, menstrual irregularities and infertility. In both excessiveness and deficiency of the thyroid hormone, reproduction functions in women decrease. Therefore, before starting treatment of the women patients who are diagnosed with infertility, surveys relating to thyroid diseases should be conducted.
Infertility among Men
In thyroid diseases detected in men, motility disorders are detected in male genital cells called sperm. Disorder of the sperm motility may cause infertility. Therefore, before starting treatment of the male patients who are diagnosed with infertility, surveys relating to thyroid diseases should be conducted.
Thyroid Diseases among Infants
Thyroid diseases detected in infants generally arise from the thyroid diseases that the mother experiences during pregnancy and the treatment applied to the mother for this purpose. Sometimes, when there is no thyroid disease in the mother, hyper/hypothyroid or thyroid nodule may be detected in the newborn babies. Although it is rare, in some cases, the thyroid gland does not absolutely develop in infants (thyroid aplasia). Another strange situation is location of the thyroid gland in a faulty place (ectopic thyroid).     

The most frequent and the most terrible thyroid disease in infants is deficiency of secretion of the thyroid hormone. In this clinical table called Neonatal hyperthyroidism, adequate thyroid hormones are not secreted from the thyroid gland in infants, which in its turn hinders the physical and intellectual development of the babies. While a successful treatment produces a full result in infants in general, in the infants not treated, dramatic development and mental deficiency is unavoidable. Therefore, an early diagnosis is essential.

The frequency of thyroid incidences varies from country to country by the sensitivity of the used screening test. It is accepted that in Europe, one in every 3,300 babies has thyroid hormone deficiency. And in our country, frequency of the thyroid disease has been detected in one in every 3,344 live births. In untreated incidences, a serious mental deficiency and asymmetric nanosomia may occur. If not diagnosed earlier, permanent mental deficiency is unavoidable. In the babies born underweighted this disease is seen more frequently. In babies, in the blood taken in the first days after the birth, N-TSH should be measured. This screening test is not made by taking blood sample from the veins of the babies; there are special laboratory kits for performing this test in the blood taken from the toes. In our country, a TSH test is freely conducted in each newborn baby with the aim to treat neonatal hypothyroidism without delay. 
Hairs & Nails in Thyroid Diseases
Thyroid diseases, in particular thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism) breaches the health of all ectodermic tissues (tissues that are in contact with the external environment). Nails, skin and hair are among our ectodermic tissues. In patients with thyroid hormone deficiency, labile nails, weakening of the nails and getting them pealed in layers and occurrence of whitish spots on the nails are seen. And in hyperthyroidism, hair loss is seen. In hypothyroidism, hair loss is rarer and the hair quality is broken significantly. In these patients, the hair becomes dull, rough, thick and labile, and hair dandruffs are seen.
Thyroid Diseases & Obesity
One in every 4 persons having overweight problem experiences latent (subclinical) thyroid deficiency. The thyroid hormone is the key hormone determining the speed of our metabolism. Where the thyroid gland secretes inadequate amount of hormones, metabolism gets slower and obesity occurs. Obesity mainly occurs in the supraorbital zone, around belly and under zones of the body. Also, the deficiency of thyroid hormones causes an edematous body in addition to gaining weight. In the patients who are going to enter the regime of lose weighting, firstly, thyroid hormones should be measured. For this purpose, TSH should be measured as a screening test.
Miscellaneous Effects of Thyroid Diseases
Hypothyroidism, intestinal obstruction and chronic fatigue are seen; while in Hyperthyroidism, diarrhea and nausea may be seen. And in most of the thyroid diseases, amnesia, joint pains, cramps, fatigue, loss of motivation, proneness to depression and sexual anorexia may be observed.     

Any disorder in the thyroid hormones influences on all systems of the body and causes very significant health problems. This hormonal system which is so much important should be controlled by consulting your doctor and by getting first TSH measurement in blood and T3 and T4 levels measured.   
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